Loans rules across countries

How much money can I lend on October? Can I lend the same way to all projects from different countries?

Camille David avatar
Written by Camille David
Updated over a week ago
  • The amount you can lend on projects goes from €20 to €2,000. Depending on the project type, different limits may apply.

  • The local regulation can have an impact on your capacity to lend to a project.

  • Some investment limits apply on Spanish and Dutch projects.

Our mission is to create the Europe of Savings: allowing European lenders to invest directly in European companies . In this tutorial, we present you the investment rules depending of the country of origin and the size of the projects. 

Investment limits per country

In order to protect individuals from investing amounts that could jeopardize their economic situation in case of capital loss, the law provides investment limits to be implemented by the crowdlending platforms. The crowdlending regulation differs from one country to the other, which results in different investment limits: 

France 🇫🇷 and Italy 🇮🇹

  • Retail lenders can lend up to €2,000 per project (this is a French limit imposed by the local regulator in order to push individuals to diversify their loan portfolio), 

  • There are no annual limits on the number of loans or on the amount lent.

The Netherlands 🇳🇱

  • Retail lenders can lend up to €2,000 per project. 

  • The outstanding capital of any Dutch lender on the platform can never exceed €80,000 because of local regulation. As a Dutch lender you will be able to keep your outstanding capital at €80,000 by reinvesting your capital repayments in projects. 

  • Also if you are not a Dutch lender, your outstanding capital in Dutch projects can never exceed €80,000. 

Spain 🇪🇸

  • Retail lenders can also lend up to €2,000 per project. 

  • There is a maximum amount that any lender can lend to Spanish projects per year. The maximum that you can lend per year to Spanish projects is €10,000. If you wish to invest above this annual limit of €10,000 in Spanish projects, you have to become an accredited lender. To become one, you have to: 

  • Provide a proof that your annual income is above €50,000 or that you have more than €100,000 in financial assets

  • Request the accredited lender status at [email protected] and complete an application form (only the first page in Spanish is to be completed, the second is an indicative translation).

Investment limits per project type

Projects below €100,000 funded by both retail and institutional lenders

These projects are usually funded quickly since the amount available to retail lenders is very limited, as the October fund covers 51% or the project. To enable the maximum number of lenders to participate in them and promote diversification, we apply an investment limit of €100 on projects of less than €100,000. For loans above €100,000 the limit is €2,000.

This limit has no impact on the distribution between institutional lenders and individual lenders. Institutional Investors will remain at 51%. The idea is not to increase this share, but to increase the number of private lenders.

Projects funded exclusively by retail lenders

Some projects are funded exclusively by retail investors. In that case, 100% of the loan amount needs to be covered by the investments of retail lenders for the company to be financed. Even though these projects are below the €100,000 limit, the fact that retail lenders are the only ones financing the project makes it possible to raise the investment limit to €2.000 on these projects. Why €2.000? To enable lenders to have more flexibility in the amount they want to lent per project. As a reminder, we recommend you to lend to at least 100 projects to have a diversified portfolio. 

Projects denied to retail lenders

Based on your tax residency

A few projects can be denied to some investors for regulatory reasons. Regulation differs from country to country: if a project does not match with the local regulation, it might be denied to the lenders of this country.

The objects of financing eligible to a participatory financing are not the same everywhere. For example, the French law does not allow the French retail lenders to invest in a project whose objective is to refinance another loan or invoices. In that case, the project will be denied to French tax residents but will be available to lenders living in countries where this is possible.

The guarantees requested on a project can also impact your capacity to lend to that project. In Spain, the local law does not allow the Spanish retail lenders to participate in a project guaranteed by a collateral on an asset, including real estate properties or pledge on the shares of the company. Therefore, these projects will not be opened to the retail lenders living in Spain.

Restrictions might also be applied if offering a project to some countries would create administrative complications for lenders or for October.

Germany 🇩🇪

For regulatory reasons we cannot open German projects to individuals and German tax residents are not allowed to lend on October. This is because BaFin (German Federal Financial Supervisory Authority) requires the use of a fronting bank to allow retail investment in loans. We have studied this possibility, which has been chosen by other platforms, but the additional constraints and costs make this an unacceptable alternative under our business model. German projects will only be funded by our institutional lenders (nor Spanish, Italian, French or Dutch retail lenders will be able to German projects).

We will continue to work hard, with our peers in the European Crowdfunding Network, to allow German lenders on the platform in the future. How? We are confident that regulation, particularly at European level, will evolve to enable you to support the growth of European companies.

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